The Dunning Kruger effect (a.k.a. Illusionary Superiority)
If you attended any of my conference talks or spoke to me about maturity models, you would have heard me mention Dunning Kruger. Yet to this day I have not written a blog post about it. It’s well overdue as it is the single best explanation for the behaviours I see in our industry and the source of many of my frustrations. Let’s take a good hard look at ourselves in the mirror.
What is the Dunning-Kruger effect?
The Dunning Kruger effect says that people who are not that knowledgeable about a certain area actually believe that they are quite good at it. Perhaps we start with a few examples:
- 90% of drivers consider themselves to be above average – Daniel Gilbert Stumbling on happiness
- 94% of college teachers consider themselves to be above average – Daniel Gilbert Stumbling on happiness
- In a survey of faculty at the University of Nebraska, 68% rated themselves in the top 25% for teaching ability. – Wikipedia
- In a similar survey, 87% of MBA students at Stanford University rated their academic performance as above the median. – Wikipedia
- How do you think people would rate you as a leader?” It turns out that 74% of the respondents think they’re either above average or the best leader their people have ever had. – SmartBrief on Leadership
- Or consider Lake Wobegon where all children are above average 😉
Perhaps it is best explained by the anecdote that gave it the name, which inspired the original research from Dunning and Kruger:
A man decided rob a bank and did his research to prepare the big heist. He then entered the bank robbed the bank of it’s money and made his way home happy to see everything going smoothly. When he arrived at home the police was already waiting for him and arrested. The man was shocked. In his research he had found out that lemon juice can be used as invisible ink, and so he covered himself in lemon juice to be invisible to the people and cameras due to the invisible ink…
Is Dunning Kruger really a thing?
You might wonder whether Dunning-Kruger is really a thing and why it is important for you. Let me tell where I came across it most often. I do a lot of assessment work to understand where organisations are in their DevOps journey and there is one aspect that keeps baffling me: Continuous Integration. Here is a pretty common dialog that I experience with someone from the development of an organisation, let’s call him Adam:
Mirco: Do you practice Continuous Integration?
Adam: (with a little hesitation) Yes we do.
Mirco: (thinking I could stop here and tick the box, but am curious) How do you know that you are doing CI?
Adam: We have CI server and are using Jenkins.
Mirco: How often does the CI server build your software?
Adam: We run it once a week fully automatically.
Mirco: How often are your developers checking in code?
Adam: Multiple times a day.
Mirco: Does your CI server run cover static code analysis and automated unit tests?
I don’t believe that people have the intention of lying in this scenario, I think Dunning-Kruger is working its magic here. I was baffled by seeing this pattern again and again. Once I learned about Dunning-Kruger things fell into place.
Once you know it, you will see it everywhere in the DevOps and Agile world. People believing they are done when they are just at the beginning. People attending conference talks and rather than understanding the difference picking up only the things they have in common to validate their self-evaluation.
This also means that self-assessments are potentially dangerous and that maturity models can be misleading. It might also make you question the validity of some of the surveys you see out there. Well, it might make you doubt yourself? Am I really doing this right or am I falling into Dunning-Kruger?
I think the most important takeaway is that we need to talk more. We need to try to understand the context and the situation much better before we do an evaluation. We need to look for others to take an external look at our situation and compare it as objectively as possible. We need to provide more education for our people as a recipe against Dunning-Kruger. As an alternative to the usual maturity model I once created a “Civilisation”-inspired technology tree for Continuous Delivery with one of my clients, you can read more about this here.
Rather than looking for maturity models, perhaps it is better to look at outcomes and use maturity models as a conversation starter with a coach to help us identify which steps to take next rather than an evaluation of our teams. It’s only one of the tools in our toolbag and we should not put too much emphasis on it.
I will leave you with this final picture that I came across, unfortunately I don’t know the origin (Update: Martin in the comments told me it’s from Simon Wardley), but it does describe the danger zone very nicely in which many people new to Agile and DevOps find themselves: